Infertility : Infertility is defined as not being able to get pregnant despite having frequent, unprotected sex for at least a year for most people and six months in certain circumstances. Infertility may be due to a single cause in either you or your partner, or a combination of factors that may prevent a pregnancy from occurring or continuing.
The reasons for infertility can involve one or both partners. In general:
- In about one-third of cases, the cause of infertility involves only the male.
- In about one-third of cases, the cause of infertility involves only the female.
- In the remaining cases, the cause of infertility involves both the male and female, or no cause can be identified.
Causes of male infertility may include:
Abnormal sperm production or function problems with the delivery of sperm, overexposure to certain chemicals and toxins such as pesticides, radiation, tobacco smoke, alcohol, marijuana, and steroids (including testosterone), damage related to cancer and its treatment, including radiation or chemotherapy.
Causes of female infertility may include:
Ovulation disorders, which hinder or prevent the ovaries from releasing eggs eg: polycystic ovary syndrome, a condition that might relate to your ovaries producing too much of the male hormone testosterone, and hyperprolactinemia, when you have too much prolactin, other causes are : uterine or cervical abnormalities,fallopian tube damage or blockage , endometriosis, primary ovarian insufficiency( early menopause,)when the ovaries stop working and menstruation ends before age 40 and pelvic adhesions. Other hormonal disorders that can cause infertility in females include: thyroid disorders ( both hyper and hypothyroidism) and cushing’s syndrome.
Polycystic ovarian syndrome :
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome) is a relatively common hormonal disorder that causes a number of different symptoms in women of reproductive age. Common to all women with PCOS is an irregularity in the menstrual cycle and the presence of excess male hormones (androgens). The condition was named because of the finding of enlarged ovaries containing multiple small cysts (polycystic ovaries). Although most women with PCOS have polycystic ovaries, some affected women do not.